If a loss contingency is both probable and reasonably estimable, it should be charged against income. Under the provisions of ASCgeneral or unspecified business risks are not loss contingencies and, therefore, no accrual is necessary.
Professional judgment is required to classify the likelihood of the future events occurring. In cases where judgments have been entered against the reporting entity, or where the attorney gives a range of expected losses or other amounts and indicates that an unfavorable outcome is probable, accruals of loss contingencies for at least the minimum point of the range must be made.
However, an estimate exists because of uncertainty about the amount of a loss resulting from an event requiring an acknowledged accounting recognition. Below is an overview of each Subtopic. Each acquisition-related contingent asset should be reported at the lower of its acquisition-date fair value or the best estimate of its future settlement amount.
Loss contingencies that do not meet both criteria for recognition still may need to be disclosed in the financial statements. If the occurrence of the loss is reasonably possible, the facts and circumstances of the possible loss and an estimate of the amount, if determinable, should be disclosed.
Disclosure of contingencies for public companies should also include quantification of the related accruals and adjustments, costs of legal defense, and reasonably likely exposure to additional loss, as well as the assumptions that management has made about those amounts, and the extent to which the resulting estimates of loss are sensitive to changes in those assumptions.
The FASB provided three terms to describe contingencies: The uncertainty will ultimately be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur. Accruals for contingencies, including those arising in connection with litigation, are limited under GAAP to expected losses resulting from events occurring prior to the balance sheet date.
Recommended disclosures include the nature of the contingency, the uncertain factors that may affect the future outcome, and an estimate of the financial effect, or a statement that such an estimate cannot be made.
No liability was accrued at the end ofdespite an ability to calculate at least a minimum liability on claims outstanding. The event has occurred and the effect is known, but the amount itself is uncertain.
Unless the attorney indicates that the risk of loss is remote or slight, or that the loss if it occurs would be immaterial to the company, disclosure in financial statements is necessary and an accrual may also be necessary. However, in general disclosure of contingencies should help to avoid lawsuits because it leads investors to form realistic expectations.
The judgment was upheld in and Texaco filed for bankruptcy. Acquisition-related Contingencies ASC does not generally apply when determining which contingent assets or liabilities are to be recognized as of the date of an acquisition.
All relevant information that can be acquired concerning the uncertain set of circumstances needs to be obtained and used to determine the classification. In such a case the minimum amount or the better estimate in the range should be accrued and the full range disclosed in notes.
For example, depreciation is an estimate, but not a contingency because the actual fact of physical depreciation is acknowledged, although the amount is obtained by an assumed accounting method.
In a contingency, the amount is also usually uncertain, although that is not an essential characteristic. The other party, Pennzoil, did not record the contingent gain until Collectibility of receivables is a contingency because it is uncertain whether a customer will not pay at a future date, although it is probable that some customers will not pay.
See our comprehensive collection of news and publications related to contingencies. For example, the risk of losses from future injuries suffered by those who interact with a company are not included in contingencies if the injuries have not yet occurred. When a contingent liability results in an actual loss, the largest effect on stock price should be in those cases where disclosure was insufficient or there was no disclosure.
He found that modifying paragraphs in the audit opinion had predictive ability in connection with later material losses. To the extent those losses are not or cannot be insured, the risks are contingencies. One unresolved issue is whether expected legal costs to be incurred in connection with a loss contingency that is being accrued should be accrued as well.Accounting and reporting for contingencies--that is to say, potential gains and losses--is a topic that is not regularly on the front burner of finance and accounting professionals.
It usually is covered in just a few pages in the standard. Video created by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for the course "Accounting Analysis II: Measurement and Disclosure of Liabilities".
In this module, you will be introduced to the concepts of current liabilities and contingencies. ASCContingencies, outlines the accounting and disclosure requirements for loss and gain contingencies. An estimated loss from a loss contingency is recognized only if the available information indicates that (1) it is probable that an asset has been impaired or a liability has been incurred at the reporting date and (2) the amount of the loss can be.
Accounting for contingencies February 12, / Steven Bragg A contingency arises when there is a situation for which the outcome is uncertain, and which should be resolved in the future, possibly creating a loss.
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S.
GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and requirements related to potential gains and losses. It cites the litigation, claims, and assessments including financial disclosures on the treatment of loss contingency for Microsoft Corp.
and Air France-KLM SA. Contingencies is part of current liabilities, but since it is a broad and controversy topic, I decide to emphasize contingencies discussion separately in this post.
I am going to talk about it from the past concepts, standards and researches up to the most recent update standard by the Accounting Standard Codification [ASC] by the US GAAP.Download