Although these instruments were mostly designed to predict the likelihood of offending, we included violent, sexual, and antisocial outcomes based on clinical records and other measures even if they did not lead to convictions.
Methods We followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement. These studies often use survey data, interviewing children or their parents about their exposure to violence and then using various individual-level measures to estimate its effects.
This study found that individuals who reported higher levels of exposure to community violence were significantly more likely to report possessing a weapon such as a gun or knife or engaging in personal assault. Overall, based on diagnostic odds ratios, violence risk assessment tools performed best, and had higher positive predictive values than tools aimed at predicting sexual offending.
Accuracy estimates We used a range of accuracy estimates to report on the predictive validity of the risk assessment tools. We requested additional data from the authors of studies and obtained data for 52 studies We did secondary analyses by comparing participants classified as high risk with those classified as low or moderate risk, an approach consistent with screening, and also by completely excluding those classified as moderate risk.
Using a student-level survey, Henrich et al investigate the long-term effects of exposure to violence on middle school students. Instruments designed to predict violent offending performed better than those aimed at predicting sexual or general crime.
Overstreet and Braun use a survey method to look into the effects of community violence on academic performance, specifically examining whether exposure to violence affects academic functioning independent of emotional distress.
We also conducted subgroup analyses using the bivariate models on these variables. I also read one other study that was less conclusive about the effects of community violence on student outcomes.
Further research is needed to examine their contribution to treatment and management. For the sake of consistency, however, we refer to all outcomes as offences.
Therefore, the magnitude of observed heterogeneity in meta-analyses of diagnostic accuracy is instead best determined by the scatter of points in the summary receiver operating characteristic plot and from the prediction ellipse.
I will need to include similar controls at the school level when I design my analysis.
Risk assessment tools are predominantly used in clinical situations as instruments for identifying higher risk individuals, 19 thus, we combined participants who were classified as being at moderate or high risk for future offending and compared them with those classified as low risk.
Of 24 participants, Conclusions Although risk assessment tools are widely used in clinical and criminal justice settings, their predictive accuracy varies depending on how they are used. Finally, the number safely discharged is a new performance statistic that we developed for the purposes of this review.
Nevertheless, these individual-level studies provide important groundwork for my research because they can help illuminate the individual psychological mechanisms that help explain why violence might be associated with student performance.
Since the late s, such assessment has mostly been conducted by structured instruments after several studies found unstructured clinical opinion to have little evidence in support. Interestingly, this study also looked into which types of students were most likely to be exposed to community violence, finding that males, African American students, and urban students were most likely to report exposure to danger.
In addition, the Hodges-Lehmann percentile difference, 52 the median difference between all possible pairs of d values from the two groups, was small 0.
They seem to identify low risk individuals with high levels of accuracy, but their use as sole determinants of detention, sentencing, and release is not supported by the current evidence. By efpelletier Honors Fellows The majority of the current literature about the effects of violence exposure on school-age children has been research looking at individuals as the unit of analysis.
Standardised outcome data were available in the manuscripts of 30 eligible studies 32 samples. In another individual-level survey, Patchin et al used a similar method of youth interviews to look into the effects of exposure to community violence on childhood delinquency — specifically, on weapon carrying and assaultive behavior.
Table 2 Descriptive and demographic characteristics of samples investigating predictive validity of risk assessment tools designed to predict violent, sexual, and criminal outcomes.
Studies in all languages and unpublished investigations were considered for inclusion. Using this search strategy, we identified validation studies web figure 1. Introduction With the increasing recognition of the public health importance of violence, 1 2 the prediction of violence, or violence risk assessment, has been the subject of considerable clinical and research interest.
Over of these structured measures currently exist, 15 and are starting to be implemented in low and middle income countries. Standardised outcome information from 43 of the samples 14 Risk assessment has been used to inform indeterminate sentencing in the UK, 12 and has become a largely uncontested part of an expanded criminal justice process in the US.
Tests of assumptions Standard meta-analytic pooling assumptions were met for diagnostic odds ratios and both sensitivity and specificity. Finally, of the 82 studies for which tabular data was obtained, we were able to include information from 68 73 samples; references available in web appendixsince the other 14 studies used instruments to predict outcomes other than those for which they were designed.
Detailed examination of the overall differences between individual instruments have been reported in a subset of the samples.
To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to report rates of true positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives at a given cut-off score for the outcome which the instrument was designed to predict.
A pilot study showed that different score thresholds were used to classify people as being at low, moderate, or high risk of future offending. This technique is interesting because it provides a natural control for all family measures of disadvantage both observable and unobservable.
Review methods We included replication studies from 1 January to 1 January if they provided contingency data for the offending outcome that the tools were designed to predict. We have synthesised these data across a range of accuracy estimates, one of which was developed for the purposes of this review.
Since binary test outcomes are defined on the basis of a cut-off value for test positivity, we chose these values a priori.Violence in schools: Prevalence, prediction, and evolution of school violence as well as the to and from school was unsafe.
Some students were so afraid. Study: To Reduce School Violence, it's hard for students to learn in a school where classmates are constantly getting into It would be a very good prediction.
TEACHERS AS VICTIMS OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE Many research findings about violence involving students role of strain and school culture for the prediction of. “I think people are going toward wanting all their kids to be screened in high school for mental illness and violence The authors of the analysis.
Start studying Chapter 11a and 11b. Learn vocabulary, High school and college students. A particular assessment concern in the prediction of violence is.
The Effect of High School Shootings on Extreme violence between students in high schools may The Effect of High School Shootings on Schools and Student.Download